The Paris Agreement is an international treaty that was negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2015. It was signed by 196 parties, including all member states of the UN, and aims to limit global warming to below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.
The negotiations for the Paris Agreement took place over several years, beginning in 2011 with the adoption of the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action. This platform established a process for developing a new legal agreement on climate change that would be applicable to all countries, and that would come into force in 2020.
Following the Durban Platform, negotiations continued at the Conference of the Parties (COP) meetings of the UNFCCC, with various draft texts being produced and discussed. These negotiations culminated in the adoption of the Paris Agreement at COP21 in December 2015.
The Paris Agreement sets out a number of obligations for parties, including regular reporting and review of emissions reductions, and the provision of financial and technical support to developing countries. It also includes a commitment to reaching a global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible, and to undertake rapid reductions thereafter.
The adoption of the Paris Agreement was widely seen as a significant achievement in international efforts to address climate change. However, since its adoption, concerns have been raised about the adequacy of the commitments made by parties, and the pace of progress towards meeting the goals of the agreement.
In conclusion, the Paris Agreement was negotiated under the UNFCCC in 2015, following several years of negotiations and discussions. While it represents a significant step forward in international efforts to address climate change, there is still much work to be done to ensure that the goals of the agreement are achieved.